Owen Sound Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" includes various pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity in addition to the nerves and muscles responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like for instance lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a medical doctor specializing in this field in particular is known as a pulmonologist. Different names used for this medical practitioner include: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
Respiratory diseases could be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the tissue or organ involved or by the pattern and type of connected symptoms and signs, or by the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This specific disease, that comprises emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
Allergic responses are a common reason for acute respiratory disease. This is due to the exposure to different agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods can consist of radish, lemon, sea foods such as some prawns and fatty fish, peanuts, bananas, dairy and ice creams, pomegranates, lemon, arrowroot, berries and lady's finger. Climate can also affect various people because dusty and sandy climate during summertime can make the quality of air poor for those who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This grouping of diseases pertain to problems of the airways including the alveoli, bronchi and bronchioles. They become reduced in volume or else that have impeded the free flow of gas, making it harder to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases cause incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory infections can affect all parts of the respiratory system. These infections are usually divided into either a lower respiratory tract infection or an upper respiratory tract infection.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common type of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract specific organs may consist of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection would typically be caused by Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia throughout the globe. Various viruses and fungi can result in pneumonia also, for example pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity comprises emphysema and mesothelioma. A collection of fluid within the pleural cavity is referred to as a pleural effusion. This can be due to conditions like congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can even happen from TB, pleura inflammation, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura that helps to cover the lungs, where air is permitted inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe kind of this where the air is unable to escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, resulting in a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are some conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation. Examples of these diseases consist of: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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